finnish war 1808

Failure to block the Russians led the king to relieve Cederström of his duties and replace him with Commander Henrik Johan Nauckhoff. TV Shows. Most of the fortifications in Finland had not been completed and those that were completed had mostly fallen into neglect and disrepair. Abandoned Swedish fortifications on the Hangö Peninsula (Finnish: Hanko) were taken and manned on 21 March and on the same day the Russian army took Åbo (Finnish: Turku) while a small detachment was sent to Åland. On February 21, 1808, 24,000 Russian troops under Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoevden crossed the border in Ahvenkoski and took the town of Lovisa (Finnish: Loviisa). He was to lead a force of 2,600 men, land somewhere between Nystad (Finnish: Uusikaupunki) and Åbo, and then capture the latter. Hostilities thus continued until May, when Shuvalov finally reached Umeå, where he was succeeded by Kamensky. The third force, commanded by Count Shuvalov, struck against Torneå and, braving fierce frost, encircled a Swedish army, which capitulated on 25 March. Before the end of March 1808 even Vasa was taken. The demand was repeated on 2 March but without success. Kamensky's 11,000-strong corps achieved important victories at Kuortane (1 September) and Salmi (2 September), and although Georg Carl von Döbeln won the Battle of Jutas for Sweden on 13 September, Kamensky gained the most important victory at Oravais on 14 September. The troops that landed were forced to withdraw to their ships on 18 September, but landed in Finland again on 26 September. Emperor Napoleon of France and the Russian Czar Alexander I agreed that Russia will force Sweden to join a … Piriformis Syndrome: References & Bibliography, Exercise & Ehlers-Danlos Syndromes (EDS): Part One, Exercise & Ehlers-Danlos Syndromes (EDS): Part Two, Exercise & Ehlers-Danlos Syndromes (EDS): Part Three, Exercise & Ehlers-Danlos Syndromes (EDS): Part Four, Exercise & Ehlers-Danlos Syndromes (EDS): Part Five, Exercise & Ehlers-Danlos Syndromes (EDS): Part Six, UK Military Recruitment & Selection Overview, British Army Recruitment & Selection Overview, BARB Test: British Army Roles by GTI Score, Technical Selection Test: British Army Technical Roles by TST Scores, The British Army’s Potential Officer Development Programme (PODP), Royal Marines Recruitment & Selection Overview, Royal Navy Recruitment & Selection Overview, UK Senior Military Officers (British Army), British Army Phase 1: Initial Military Training, The Sandhurst Group SNCO Instructor Cadre, British Army Late Entry (LE) Commissioning Process, The RAF Non-Commissioned Aircrew & Controllers Initial Training Course (NCACITC), British Army Phase 2 Specialist & Phase 3 Career Training, Royal Armoured Corps & Household Cavalry Phase 2 & 3 Training, Royal Corps of Signals Phase 2 & 3 Training, Royal Logistics Corps Phase 2 & 3 Training, Royal Electrical & Mechanical Engineers Phase 2 & 3 Training, Adjutant General’s Corps Phase 2 & 3 Training, British Army Musicians Phase 2 & 3 Training, Royal Army Physical Training Corps Phase 2 & 3 Training, Small Arms School Corps Phase 2 & 3 Training, UK Military Command, Leadership & Management (CLM) Programmes, British Army Leadership Development Programme, UK Military Officer Career Development Programmes, British Army Officer Career Development Programmes, Royal Marines Officer Career Development Programmes, Royal Navy Officer Career Development Programmes, RAF Officer Career Development Programmes, OJAR & SJAR: Officers’ & Servicepersons’ Joint Appraisal Reports, An Overview of the UK’s Military Annual Training Tests (MATTs), British Army Sniper Operator’s Course (SOC), British Army Basic Close Combat Skills (BCCS), Armed Forces of the United States of America, US Military Recruitment & Selection Overview, US Military Enlisted Recruitment & Selection Overview, What is the Tailored Adaptive Personality Assessment System (TAPAS). Sufficient stocks of supplies had not been prepared for the Swedish army, since King Gustaf IV Adolf thought it might be taken as provocative by the Russians. While the garrison was 700 men strong, only a third of the men had actually functioning weapons, while most of the fortress’ guns had no carriages. Von Vegesack instead chose to land his force at the Lemo (Finnish: Lemu) manor house a few kilometers south of Åbo. The level of detail was so great that Russian maps of Finland were in many respects more accurate than their Swedish counterparts. In April Napoleon began to devote more attention to the situation in Spain, and the British navy remained a continuous threat for troop movements between Denmark and Sweden. The Russian commander agreed and speedily recalled Kulnev back to Åland. A third unit was to advance into Sweden by land, going around the gulf and through the town of Torneå (Finnish: Tornio). Due to bad weather and poor visibility the fleet under Admiral Rudolph Cederström chose to stay relatively far from the coast. Finnish War (1808-1809), aftermathPin link / Albums/ Maps/ Source Source These raids caused much confusion, and Russian responses to them thinned their strength along the coast. After starting the siege on 21 February, the Russians issued a surrender demand for the fort, but this was refused by the Swedes. Start Routes Cycling route "Finnish War 1808 in Kälviä", Kokkola. As a result of the war, the eastern third of Sweden was established as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland within the Russian Empire. In the south, the Swedish battle fleet remained anchored within the Finnish archipelago, blocking some of the deeper coastal sea routes from Hangö towards Åbo. New Project: Russo-Swedish War in 1808-1809 aka "The Finnish War" (Suomen Sota) Updated! A few months later, on 06 January 1810, the Russian government mediated the Treaty of Paris between Sweden and France. In May, the Russians suffered further setbacks when they were driven from Gotland and Åland, where a Swedish flotilla, supported by the local population, compelled the small Russian force left on the main island of Fasta Åland to surrender, and then invaded the island of Kumlinge where the bulk of the Russian garrison on the Åland Islands was based. The strength of the Swedish coastal forces deployed to the Finnish archipelago was equal in size to the coastal fleet that the Russians had obtained by the Sveaborg surrender. The Swedish advance was very slow however, as operations were often halted due to the thaw. Swedish landings were invariably made with poorly equipped and trained forces, often with troops who had very low morale. While the garrison was 700 men strong, only a third of the men had actually functioning weapons, while most of the fortress' guns had no carriages. Altogether the Swedes had several hundred local men-in-arms. Sweden then joined the Continental System and closed its harbours to British ships, leading to a formal declaration of war on Great Britain. Abborfors bro 1808.png 1,773 × 665; 33 KB. In the north, the situation was more complicated. The motif on the coin is the passage of Finland from Sweden to Russia. Second Swedish Retreat. Russian sources might refer to Julian calendar dates. They met the Russians first at Tallholmen on 21 July and again on 2 August in the Battle of Sandöström. Finnish War 1808-1809, the aftermath. Six days later, the czar arrived in Åbo and, on learning about the truce, not only revoked Knorring's signature but named Barclay de Tolly as the new Commander-in-Chief. As Russian forces embarked upon their unprecedented march across the frozen gulf, King Gustav IV – accused of fatal mistakes leading to the loss of Finland – was dethroned in Stockholm on 13 March, and his uncle was proclaimed Charles XIII of Sweden. Borgå (Finnish: Porvoo) was captured on 24 February and Helsingfors (Finnish: Helsinki) on 02 March. His ideas were further developed by General Jan Pieter van Suchtelen before General Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoeveden was appointed as the commander of the Russian army in Finland in December 1807. 102-мм единорог.jpg 1,944 × 912; 809 KB. As a result of the war, the eastern third of Sweden was established as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland within the Russian Empire. The king, who viewed Napoleon as the Antichrist and Britain as his ally against Napoleon’s France, was apprehensive of the system’s ruinous consequences for Sweden’s maritime commerce. He instead entered into negotiations with Britain in order to prepare a joint attack against Denmark, whose Norwegian possessions he coveted. Skirmishes and landings continued in the Finnish archipelago from late summer into autumn. The landing began on 19 June and was initially successful. Aftermath. As it happened, the bulk of the Swedish army, including the best units, were kept out of the Finnish War by the king, who reserved them for his plans for conquering either Sjælland or Norway. The Swedish plan was to first passively defend and hold on to the fortifications in the southern coast of Finland, in which Sweden had strong garrisons, while the rest of the Swedish army retreated to the north. The dates are according to the Gregorian (Western European) calendar. The established name is Finnish War which is a translation from Swedish Finska kriget. Some advocates existed for taking a more active approach immediately, namely Lieutenant Colonel Samuel Möller (fi) who advocated for taking an immediate offensive and Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt who supported actively delaying the advancing enemies in co-operation with the garrisons in the southern coast. [citation needed], According to two 2015 studies by political scientists Jan Teorell and Bo Rothstein, Sweden's loss in the Finnish War led to reforms of the Swedish bureaucracy. In August, Charles XIII, anxious to improve his position at a peace settlement, ordered General Gustav Wachtmeister to land in the north of Sweden and to attack Kamensky's rear. A colonel and a Savonian cannon for Finnish war 1808-1809 There are some models I needed for my Russo-Swedish War 1808 project that haven't been made yet by the Perrys. The basic reason for the plan was to avoid major decisive battles. Three days later, Buxhoeveden – pressed by the early onset of winter weather – signed an armistice, much to the dismay of Alexander I. Before the engagement started Klingspor finally arrived on 02 March and assumed command. King Gustav Adolf did this after securing an alliance with Britain on 08 February 1808. The Russians had advanced considerably but they had also gained the long and vulnerable coastline with it. Defenses were strong enough to prevent the Russians from trying to storm the fortress by surprise. The allied fleet moved on 25 August 1808 to engage the Russian fleet, which turned and attempted to reach the relative safety of Baltiyskiy Port. Imgur: The magic of the Internet. Total British control of the Gulf of Finland was a large obstacle to the Russian supply network and required sizable garrisons to be posted all along the Finnish coast. Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. The first was at the Battle of Rimito Kramp on 30 June, and after Russians withdrew closer to Åbo, the second was a battle at Pukkisaari on 04 July. Due to various disagreements with the Swedish king, however, they never landed and sailed off to fight the French in Spain after leaving 16 battleships and 20 other ships at Sweden's disposal. The landing succeeded, and together with Swedish troops advancing from the north, they managed to drive the Russians towards Björneborg (Finnish: Pori). In the end instructions which the new Swedish commander in Finland, General Wilhelm Mauritz Klingspor, received from the king were an unsuccessful and open-ended mixture of ideas from these very different plans. Date: 20 September 2008 (original upload date) Source: Tracé des côtes et des frontières : World Data Base II, corrigé sur la côte occidentale du golfe de Botnie et pour le lac Saimaa par le tracé issu du GSHHS. The landing succeeded, and together with Swedish troops advancing from the north, they managed to drive the Russians towards Björneborg (Finnish: Pori). Before the engagement started Klingspor finally arrived on 2 March and assumed command. On 20 August, two British ships of the line (HMS Implacable and Centaur) joined the Swedish fleet. The Finnish War was fought between the Kingdom of Sweden and the Russian Empire from February 1808 to September 1809. These raids caused much confusion, and Russian responses to them thinned their strength along the coast. The fortress surrendered to the Russians on 18 March after a siege that had lasted roughly a month, with just one man having been wounded in action. Material presented throughout this website is derived from publicly-available information (e.g. Although he reiterated his demand on 16 November 1807, it took two months before the king responded that it was impossible to honour the previous arrangements as long as the French were in control of the major Baltic ports. Landings were further complicated by the Swedish Navy's failure to tightly block the coastal sea route past Hangö. Hostilities thus continued until May, when Shuvalov finally reached Umeå, where he was succeeded by Kamensky. The landing began on 19 June and was initially successful. Ниве П. А., Русско-шведская война 1808-1809, СПБ, 1910. Having received considerable reinforcements, their numbers increased to 55,000, as opposed to the 36,000 estimated for Sweden. By November 1808, Russian forces had overrun all of Finland. In addition, Colonel Johan Bergenstråhle landed 1,100 Swedes just a few kilometres northeast of Vasa on 25 June and managed to quickly advance to the town. English: Map of Finland in Finnish war (1808) Français : Carte de la Finlande durant la guerre de Finlande en 1808. The Russian fleet reached Hangö on 06 August and chose not to engage the scattered Swedish fleet elements in the vicinity. [23], The 200th anniversary of the Finnish War was selected as the main motif for a high value commemorative coin, the €100 200th Anniversary of Finnish War commemorative coin, minted in 2008. On 17 September, the Swedes landed again, this time at Lokalax (Finnish: Lokalahti), while the coastal fleet covering the landing managed to keep the Russians away in the Battle of Palva Sund on 18 September. [6] Since Klingspor had not arrived, Lieutenant General Karl Nathanael af Klercker acted as Swedish commander in Finland. Then in the spring, counterattack simultaneously from north and south, when the Swedish army would have naval support and the Russian army would be spread over Finland and thus have long supply lines. After a meager Russian bombardment, Gripenberg agreed to negotiations on 10 March. In the meantime, the Royal Navy attacked Copenhagen and the Anglo-Russian War (1807–1812) was declared. The Grand Duchy of Finland was to retain the Gustavian constitution of 1772 with only slight modifications until 1919. As a result of the war, the eastern third of Sweden was established as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland within the Russian Empire. In Savolax the Russians also forced the Swedes to withdraw. Landings were further complicated by the Swedish Navy’s failure to tightly block the coastal sea route past Hangö. After the sea would be clear of ice there would be nothing to prevent Swedish forces from landing troops on the shore. With the Royal Navy supporting the Swedish battle fleet there was little the Russian battle fleet could accomplish. Finland, or more precisely, eastern part of Swedish kingdom was … Instead of facing the Russians at Tavastehus he ordered the army to withdraw. Referring to the treaties of 1780 and 1800, the emperor demanded that Gustav Adolf close the Baltic Sea to all foreign warships. As a consequence, Russia's situation in Southern Finland improved significantly. The 200th anniversary of the Finnish War was selected as the main motif for a high value commemorative coin, the €100 200th Anniversary of Finnish War commemorative coin, minted in 2008. The Finnish War (1808-1809), known in Sweden as “the greatest national catastrophe in the long history of the Swedish state”, resulted in the country losing Finland to the Russian Empire. He was notified of the Russian invasion already on 21 February and since it was impossible to hold the predefined defense lines as the army had not yet fully assembled he ordered the army to assemble at Tavastehus (Finnish: Hämeenlinna). Most of the Swedish plans assumed that warfare would be impossible during winter, disregarding the lessons from recent wars. Finnish War 1808-09 Tulkittua Tuuvaa exhibition at Mikkeli Art Museum 2009 Prints size 13 x 18 cm . Sprengtporten suggested going on to an offensive during the winter since Finland would be mostly isolated when seas were frozen. The Swedish fortress of Svartholm, commanded by Major Carl Magnus Gripenberg, was ill-prepared for a war. Swedish attempts to land more troops near Turku were stalled by Lieutenant-General Pyotr Bagration’s prompt actions. We provide advice, guidance, support, and information on a wide range of military- and fitness-related topics. [1] The king, who viewed Napoleon as the Antichrist and Britain as his ally against Napoleon's France, was apprehensive of the system's ruinous consequences for Sweden's maritime commerce. [25][26] The motivation behind the reforms were to make the Swedish state more effective and functional, and thus protect against the existential threat in the East. In Eastern Finland, the guerrilla movement was gradually extinguished. On 14 August, Count Nikolay Kamensky decided to use this numerical superiority to launch a new offensive. [13], The advance of the Russian coastal squadron beyond Hangö created difficulties for the Swedes. Had the king accepted the landing of 10,000 British troops in Skåne, where the expeditionary force had been authorized to disembark, it would have enabled the Swedes to release at least 10,000 trained soldiers for the Finnish War. Swedish patrol ships (consisting of armed merchant vessels) scouted and raided the coast, taking Russians prisoners to Åland. By the end of July the small forces Sweden had landed and the men that had supported them were either beaten or withdrawn back to their ships.[16]. [22], In 1808 a British expeditionary force under John Moore arrived in Sweden, but after months of idleness departed for the beginning of what became known as the Peninsular War. The Russian fleet reached Hangö on 6 August and chose not to engage the scattered Swedish fleet elements in the vicinity. The fortress had fallen into disrepair and lacked both adequate food and ammunition stores. By the morning of 20 June, the Swedish forces were forced to withdraw. Furthermore, Swedish strategy relied on the outdated plans for Finland which took into account neither the advances in weaponry, mobility of the armed forces or the greatly improved road networks of Finland. Sweden then joined the Continental System and closed its harbours to British ships, leading to a formal declaration of war on Great Britain. Instead of facing the Russians at Tavastehus he ordered the army to withdraw. The Russian advance was swift. Before the end of March 1808 even Vasa was taken. This reduced his unit to 4,000 troops, which proved insufficient to pacify the hostile country. Фомин А.А., Швеция в системе европейской политики накануне и в период русско-шведской войны 1808–1809 гг., М., 2003. After the Russians were driven from Central Finland, their forces stretched along the line of Pori — Tampere — Mikkeli. Small boat actions took place during the night time of 17-18 July which became known as the skirmish at Lövö (Finnish: Lövön kahakka). What is the Prognosis for Piriformis Syndrome? Engagements at Sävar and Ratan proved inconclusive and Kamensky succeeded in neutralizing this belated counter-offensive, following up with a final victory over the Swedes at Piteå. To prevent the Russians from gaining strength, the Swedish coastal fleet's unit under Rear Admiral Claes Hjelmstjerna tried to engage them twice in battle. The Russians utilized the guns from the burned ships, and from those which burned during the winter, and constructed several fortifications on the coast, both in Hangö as well as along narrow passages leading to Åbo.[10]. The Finnish War (Swedish: Finska kriget, Finnish: Suomen sota, Russian: Русско-шведская война 1808—1809) was a war fought in 1808-1809 between Russia and Sweden. It is the same in Spanish wikipedia. [12] In addition, Colonel Johan Bergenstråhle landed 1,100 Swedes just a few kilometers northeast of Vasa on 25 June and managed to quickly advance to the town. The lost land … The presence of the British naval units kept the Russian battlefleet strictly confined to Kronstadt, and after the British constructed artillery batteries to the Porkkala cape they cut off the coastal sea route from Russian ships. Under the terms of the Treaty of Fredrikshamn, which ended the 1808-09 Finnish War … The allied fleet moved on 25 August 1808 to engage the Russian fleet, which turned and attempted to reach the relative safety of Baltiyskiy Port. After starting the siege on 21 February, the Russians issued a surrender demand for the fort, but this was refused by the Swedes. Upon approaching the coast on 21 June, Cederström learned that the Russians had already passed the cape some time earlier. This forced the Swedes to allocate forces to southern Sweden and along the Norwegian border (23,000 troops). Since Klingspor had not arrived, Lieutenant General Karl Nathanael af Klercker acted as Swedish commander in Finland. The emperor refused to ratify the truce and replaced Buxhoeveden with a new commander-in-chief, Bogdan von Knorring, in December of that year. A few months later, on 6 January 1810, the Russian government mediated the Treaty of Paris between Sweden and France. As a result of the war, the eastern third of Sweden was established as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland within the Russian… Please see the category guidelines for more information. [19], Skirmishes and landings continued in the Finnish archipelago from late summer into autumn. The Russians gained the main body of the Swedish archipelago fleet intact as well as large stores of supplies and munitions. This is a chronology of battles and events of the Finnish War (1808–1809). Borgå (Finnish: Porvoo) was captured on 24 February and Helsingfors (Finnish: Helsinki) on 2 March. The Finnish War 1808–1809. The first occurred on 03 July with several others taking place soon after. There is no artillery for the Swedes and they don't have a mounted officer available, so I checked their catalogue and found a couple of sets that were ripe for converting. After a meager Russian bombardment, Gripenberg agreed to negotiations on 10 March. Major General Eberhard von Vegesack was chosen to lead the first Swedish army to Finland. Although he reiterated his demand on November 16, 1807, it took two months before the king responded that it was impossible to honor the previous arrangements as long as the French were in control of the major Baltic ports. This site is not endorsed by any one political, governmental or military entity and remains a wholly-independent online property (click. In 1808, a British expeditionary force under John Moore arrived in Sweden, but after months of idleness departed for the beginning of what became known as the Peninsular War (1807-1814). All material is correct and accurate at the time of publication, although the we do endeavour to ensure that material is updated periodically. The Swedish fleet suffered from outbreaks of scurvy and had been unable to maintain the blockade on its own. The basic reason for the plan was to avoid major decisive battles. On 20 August, two British ships of the line (HMS Implacable and Centaur) joined the Swedish fleet. Prevalence & Risk Factors for Piriformis Syndrome. Almost all Finnish soldiers in Sweden (most of them in the Umeå area) were repatriated after the war. A Russian battle fleet under Admiral Pyotr Khanikov (also Chanikoff) sortied in late July to clear the Swedish blockades in the archipelago, to cut contact between Åland and Sweden, and to stop Swedish supply transports sailing in the Gulf of Bothnia. Meanwhile, on 30 December 1807 Russia announced that should Sweden not a... To follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email recent wars which was able force... The advance of the north of Finland from Sweden to Russia to allocate forces to Southern and! Commander Henrik Johan Nauckhoff north: ’ How Swedish Sveaborg was taken in Eastern Finland, left in!, taking Russians prisoners to Åland from Finland using spies and other sources landings were complicated. 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